Studies have examined this question in fields as diverse as musical auditions and university teaching.
A seminal study by Goldin and Rouse (2000) finds that “blind” auditions by orchestras, where the identity and gender of the musician are hidden, contribute to a 25% increase in the percent of orchestra musicians who are female.
- The underlying paper can be found here: http://affectfinance.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Goldin-Rouse-AER-2000.pdf
A more recent study finds that this bias exists in teaching. When students believe the instructor of their online class is male, they give higher ratings. This is true regardless of whether the actual instructor is male or female.
- The underlying study, by MacNell, Driscoll, and Hunt (2014) can be found here: http://affectfinance.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/MacNell-et-al-Gender-bias-in-teaching-evaluations.pdf
- The Slate.com summary can be found here: http://affectfinance.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Gender-bias-in-student-evaluations_-Professors-of-online-courses-who-present-as-male-get-better-marks.pdf